Salomeh Keyhani, MD, MPH; Stacey Steigerwald, MSSA; Julie Ishida, MD, MAS; Marzieh Vali, MS; Magdalena Cerdá, DrPH; Deborah Hasin, PhD; Camille Dollinger, BS; Sodahm R. Yoo, BS; Beth E. Cohen, MD, MAS
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not represent the views of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs or the U.S. government.
Grant Support: In part by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health under grant R01HL130484-01A1. Dr. Keyhani's administrative funds provided by the Northern California Institute for Research and Education also supported this work. Dr. Ishida was supported by career development award K23DK103963 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Disclosures: Authors have disclosed no conflicts of interest. Forms can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M18-0810.
Editors' Disclosures: Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Editor in Chief, reports that her spouse has stock options/holdings with Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD, Executive Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc, Senior Deputy Editor, reports that she has no relationships or interests to disclose. Deborah Cotton, MD, MPH, Deputy Editor, reports that she has no financial relationships or interest to disclose. Jaya K. Rao, MD, MHS, Deputy Editor, reports that she has stock holdings/options in Eli Lilly and Pfizer. Sankey V. Williams, MD, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Catharine B. Stack, PhD, MS, Deputy Editor for Statistics, reports that she has stock holdings in Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson.
Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Blank survey tool available from Dr. Keyhani upon request (e-mail, email@example.com). Statistical code: Not available. Data set: Will be available on https://phprg.ucsf.edu/ before 1 June 2019.
Corresponding Author: Salomeh Keyhani, MD, MPH, San Francisco VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, Box 111A1, San Francisco, CA 94121; e-mail, Salomeh.Keyhani@ucsf.edu.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Keyhani and Cohen, Ms. Steigerwald, Ms. Vali, Ms. Dollinger, and Ms. Yoo: San Francisco VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, Box 111A1, San Francisco, CA 94121.
Dr. Ishida: San Francisco VA Medical Center, 4150 Clement Street, Box 111J, San Francisco, CA 94121.
Dr. Cerdá: Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, 4150 V Street, Suite 2100, Sacramento, CA 95817.
Dr. Hasin: Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Room 228F, New York, NY 10032.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: S. Keyhani, S. Steigerwald, J. Ishida, M. Cerdá, C. Dollinger, S.R. Yoo.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: S. Keyhani, S. Steigerwald, J. Ishida, M. Vali, M. Cerdá, D. Hasin, B.E. Cohen.
Drafting of the article: S. Keyhani, S. Steigerwald, C. Dollinger, S.R. Yoo.
Critical revision for important intellectual content: S. Keyhani, S. Steigerwald, J. Ishida, M. Cerdá, D. Hasin, B.E. Cohen.
Final approval of the article: S. Keyhani, S. Steigerwald, J. Ishida, M. Vali, M. Cerdá, D. Hasin, C. Dollinger, S.R. Yoo, B.E. Cohen.
Statistical expertise: M. Vali.
Collection and assembly of data: S. Keyhani, S. Steigerwald.
Despite insufficient evidence regarding its risks and benefits, marijuana is increasingly available and aggressively marketed to the public.
To understand the public's views on the risks and benefits of marijuana use.
Probability-based online survey.
United States, 2017.
16 280 U.S. adults.
Proportion of U.S. adults who agreed with a statement.
The response rate was 55.3% (n = 9003). Approximately 14.6% of U.S. adults reported using marijuana in the past year. About 81% of U.S. adults believe marijuana has at least 1 benefit, whereas 17% believe it has no benefit. The most common benefit cited was pain management (66%), followed by treatment of diseases, such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis (48%), and relief from anxiety, stress, and depression (47%). About 91% of U.S. adults believe marijuana has at least 1 risk, whereas 9% believe it has no risks. The most common risk identified by the public was legal problems (51.8%), followed by addiction (50%) and impaired memory (42%). Among U.S. adults, 29.2% agree that smoking marijuana prevents health problems. About 18% believe exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke is somewhat or completely safe for adults, whereas 7.6% indicated that it is somewhat or completely safe for children. Of the respondents, 7.3% agree that marijuana use is somewhat or completely safe during pregnancy. About 22.4% of U.S. adults believe that marijuana is not at all addictive.
Wording of the questions may have affected interpretation.
Americans' view of marijuana use is more favorable than existing evidence supports.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Keyhani S, Steigerwald S, Ishida J, Vali M, Cerdá M, Hasin D, et al. Risks and Benefits of Marijuana Use: A National Survey of U.S. Adults. Ann Intern Med. [Epub ahead of print 24 July 2018]:. doi: 10.7326/M18-0810
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2018.
Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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