Alexandra M. Levine, MD
Acknowledgments: The author thanks Laurie Hornor for help in typing the manuscript and Kathleen Squires, MD, for thoughtful review and comments on the manuscript.
Grant Support: By the Women's Interagency HIV Study Collaborative Study Group with centers (Principal Investigators) at New York City/Bronx Consortium (Kathryn Anastos), grant U01-AI-35004; Brooklyn, New York (Howard Minkoff), grant U01-AI-31834; Washington DC Metropolitan Consortium (Mary Young), grant U01-AI-34994; The Connie Wofsy Study Consortium (Ruth Greenblatt), grant AI-34989; Los Angeles County/Southern California Consortium (Alexandra Levine), grant U01-HD-32632; Chicago Consortium (Mardge Cohen), grant U01-AI-34993; and Data Coordinating Center (Alvaro Muñoz and Stephen J. Gange), grant U01-AI-42590. The Women's Interagency HIV Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, The National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute of Dental Research, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Requests for Single Reprints: Alexandra M. Levine, MD, USC/Norris Cancer Hospital, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Room 3468, Los Angeles, CA 90033.
The rate of newly diagnosed AIDS in the United States is increasing fastest in women, who are infected with HIV primarily through heterosexual transmission. Approximately 60% of these women are African American, and 18% are Latina. A gynecologic infection is the most common symptom that leads to initial medical evaluation. Specific studies at baseline should include CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV-1 RNA level, and gynecologic examination with Papanicolaou smear. Decisions about initiation of antiretroviral therapy depend on the patient's clinical diagnoses, her willingness to adhere to treatment, and CD4 lymphocyte and HIV-1 RNA levels. Levels of HIV-1 RNA may be somewhat lower in women than in men at the same CD4 count, whereas women have higher CD4 lymphocyte counts at the time of AIDS diagnosis. However, prospective trials have not yet indicated the need to change the threshold CD4 lymphocyte counts or HIV-RNA levels for initiation of therapy in women. The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy appears to be similar in men and women, although women are more likely to experience toxicities. Abnormal Papanicolaou smears occur in approximately 40% of women at baseline, and 58% are infected with human papillomavirus. The prevalence of both conditions increases with lower CD4 lymphocyte counts and higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Precursor lesions to cervical cancer may be effectively treated, but almost 50% recur within 1 year, mandating careful follow-up. Referral should be sought for specialized gynecologic care and for issues related to HIV itself, since survival is prolonged in patients treated by physicians who are experienced in treating HIV. When they are provided the same access to care, HIV-infected women have similar prognoses as HIV-infected men.
Alexandra M. Levine. Evaluation and Management of HIV-Infected Women. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:228–242. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-136-3-200202050-00011
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(3):228-242.
HIV, Infectious Disease.
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