I. W. HELD, M.D., F.A.C.P.; MILTON KRAMER, M.D.
The tremendous value in diagnosis of bed-side approach, based on a large clinical experience is known to all. In many disease states, this suffices, and memory of characteristic symptoms, physical findings and laboratory data makes accurate diagnosis possible. The problem is not so simple in diseases associated with jaundice, a leading symptom that all may recognize easily, but which is due to so many conditions, intra- and extra-hepatic, that extreme difficulty often arises in interpretation. Here, experience alone, plus the most exact functional tests known, fails to lead to exact diagnosis in a vast number of cases. Notwithstanding painstaking reasoning
HELD IW, KRAMER M. Clinical Interpretation of Jaundice Based on Physiologic Principles12. Ann Intern Med. ;6:207–217. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-6-2-207
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1932;6(2):207-217.
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