WM. M. BALLINGER, A.B., M.D., F.A.C.P.
Severe pain in the lower chest and upper abdomen is a symptom common to many affections involving several different systems of the body. Cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract as well as certain lesions of the central nervous system may frequently produce pain in the upper abdomen or lower chest or both. Thus pain in the lower chest may be due to disease of the heart, lungs or pleura on the one hand, or it may be caused by gastrointestinal lesions alone. Likewise upper abdominal pain may be due to disease located either below or above
BALLINGER WM. LOW CHEST AND UPPER ABDOMINAL PAIN1. Ann Intern Med. 1939;12:1223–1232. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-12-8-1223
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1939;12(8):1223-1232.
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