THEODORE T. FOX, M.D.; JOSEPH KLEMENTS, M.D.; EMANUEL E. MANDEL, M.D.
Considerable information has recently been published on the various problems of old age. Particular attention has been focused on the cardiovascular system, since its life cycle, important in itself, is frequently the determining factor of the functional age of all the vital organs.
Attempts have been made to define the "normal" and the "abnormal" in the aging process of the cardiovascular system but as yet there is no agreement as to "where to draw the line between phenomena of pure senescence and those of superimposed disease."1 The reasons for this difficulty are various. One obvious factor, at least as far
FOX TT, KLEMENTS J, MANDEL EE. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN OLD AGE1. Ann Intern Med. ;17:236–246. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-17-2-236
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1942;17(2):236-246.
Cardiac Diagnosis and Imaging, Cardiology, Geriatric Medicine.
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