MEINHARD ROBINOW, M.D.; HARRY T. HARPER JR., M.D.
A sign commonly considered characteristic of mitral stenosis is a mid-diastolic murmur at the cardiac apex. The murmur is usually low-pitched, rumbling, and not very loud. It is separated from the second heart sound by a definite time interval. It may be short in early diastole or may extend throughout diastole. In the latter case it decreases at first in intensity to increase again toward the end of diastole (presystolic murmur). It is usually well localized, near the apex, less commonly at the mitral valve area.
Murmurs indistinguishable from the diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis have been described in a
ROBINOW M, HARPER HT. FUNCTIONAL MITRAL STENOSIS1. Ann Intern Med. 1942;17:823–827. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-17-5-823
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1942;17(5):823-827.
Cardiology, Valvular Heart Disease.
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