EARLE M. CHAPMAN, M.D., F.A.C.P.; ROBIN G. ANDERSON, M.D.
In 1896 William Ewart, physician to St. George's Hospital in London, described1 what he termed his crucial signs of pericardial effusion. Clinicians have long appreciated Ewart's signs2 and in 1918 Dr. H. A. Christian2 reported their presence in 73 per cent of his cases of acute fibrinous pericarditis. L. A. Connor in the first issue of the American Heart Journal likewise called attention to these signs.3 We have observed a somewhat similar group of physical signs over the left lower lung but in no case was there evidence of pericarditis or pericardial effusion to explain the physical changes. Likewise we
CHAPMAN EM, ANDERSON RG. AIDS IN PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS: SIGNS OVER THE LOWER LEFT LUNG CAUSED CHIEFLY BY CARDIAC ENLARGEMENT1. Ann Intern Med. ;23:35–40. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-23-1-35
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1945;23(1):35-40.
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