NATHAN M. FENICHEL, M.D.; BERNARD S. EPSTEIN, M.D.
Pericardial effusion frequently presents a confusing clinical and roentgenological picture. The multiplicity of diagnostic criteria is indicative of the troubled attitude towards this question. Differential diagnosis may be further complicated by pleural effusion or other basilar pulmonary disease.
The principal causes of massive pericardial effusion are rheumatic fever and tuberculosis. Lupus erythematosus disseminata, pyogenic infections, malignant disease, myxedema, and the terminal phase of cardiorenal failure are less frequent etiologic agents.
The symptoms noted with pericardial effusion may vary considerably, and may be absent until the effusion produces a tamponade effect. The most common complaint is precordial discomfort or a sense
FENICHEL NM, EPSTEIN BS. THE CLINICAL AND ROENTGENOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF PERICARDIAL EFFUSION1. Ann Intern Med. 1946;24:401–412. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-24-3-401
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1946;24(3):401-412.
Cardiology, Pericardial Disease.
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