PHILIP G. KEIL, M.D.; GEORGE J. HEGSTROM, M.D.; SAMUEL J. ZOECKLER, M.D.
When most indicated, oral cholecystography is least reliable. It is most reliable when the biliary system is normal, and least reliable in the presence of disease. Visualization usually fails when this examination is most indicated—in the differential diagnosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic obstruction. The cystic and common ducts are rarely visualized sufficiently for diagnosis, even when opacification of the gall-bladder is optimal. Another means of opacifying the gall-bladder and ducts which does not entail laparotomy is desirable.
Added experience with cholangiography performed during peritoneoscopy reaffirms the value of this procedure in disease of the biliary system. There is little written
PHILIP G. KEIL, GEORGE J. HEGSTROM, SAMUEL J. ZOECKLER. CHOLANGIOGRAPHY(CHOLANGIOGRAPHY*). Ann Intern Med. 1953;39:479–483. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-39-3-479
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1953;39(3):479-483.
Biliary Disorders, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
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