W. B. YOUMANS, M.D., Ph.D.
To emphasize the renal problems, congestive heart failure may be defined as a condition in which there is a decrease in the ability of the kidneys to excrete sodium chloride and water, with the result that a positive salt and water balance develops in the presence of a normal or reduced intake. In this paper some of the evidence that congestive heart failure is characterized by retention of sodium chloride and water will be presented, and then studies which serve to establish the nature of the changes in renal function will be considered.
YOUMANS WB. RENAL FUNCTION IN CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE1. Ann Intern Med. 1954;41:739–746. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-41-4-739
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1954;41(4):739-746.
Cardiology, Heart Failure.
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