HUGH STEPHENS, M.D.; WILLIAM L. JANUS, M.D.
It is well recognized that dysphagia, as a symptom, may indicate to the diagnostician a lengthy list of lesions, benign or malignant, functional or organic, which might be the cause. In considering the functional causes, he will think of those associated with cerebrovascular disease, those due to reflexes set up by organic lesions elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, myasthenia gravis, globus hystericus, and "contractile ring" of the esophagus.1
In considering the organic causes he will think of neoplasm, particularly of the larynx and adjacent tissues, Plummer-Vinson syndrome and valvular type defects in the upper esophagus, diverticulum (usually of the pulsion
STEPHENS H, JANUS WL. DYSPHAGIA OF TRANSITORY TYPE PRODUCED BY HYPERTROPHIC SPURS ON CERVICAL VERTEBRAE1. Ann Intern Med. ;41:823–828. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-41-4-823
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1954;41(4):823-828.
Esophageal Disorders, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
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