ALBERT L. RUBIN; HARTWELL G. THOMPSON JR.; WARREN S. BRAVEMAN; E. HUGH LUCKEY, F.A.C.P.
This report is concerned with edema which is refractory to usual methods of treatment. Most patients with heart failure eventually develop edema. Often this is an early manifestation. Many factors contribute to the retention of salts and water which produce an excess of extracellular fluid. In some respects the edema of heart failure may be considered only a symptom, indirectly reflecting the derangement of hemodynamics which characterize this state. From evidence which has been accumulated from many sources, it is now generally accepted that under certain circumstances the expansion of extracellular fluid, per se, may contribute to the failure of
RUBIN AL, THOMPSON HG, BRAVEMAN WS, LUCKEY EH. THE MANAGEMENT OF REFRACTORY EDEMA IN HEART FAILURE1. Ann Intern Med. 1955;42:358–368. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-42-2-358
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1955;42(2):358-368.
Cardiology, Heart Failure.
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