WILLIAM S. WILSON, M.D.; JOHN K. MEINERT, M.D.
Hyperosmolarity exists in the extracellular fluid when the concentrations of solutes is increased above the normal range.
The cellular membrane is considered to be relatively impermeable to the sodium ion, and for this reason the extracellular sodium concentration is much higher than is the intracellular sodium concentration. Because of this concentration gradient, the sodium ion concentration is an important factor in determining the effective osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid,1 and extracellular hyperosmolarity is most commonly associated with extracellular hypernatremia.
Hypo-osmolarity is a rather common clinical condition. Diarrhea, chronic glomerulonephritis, and mercurial diuresis with restriction of sodium intake are among
WILSON WS, MEINERT JK. EXTRACELLULAR HYPEROSMOLARITY SECONDARY TO HIGH-PROTEIN NASOGASTRIC TUBE FEEDING1. Ann Intern Med. ;47:585–590. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-47-3-585
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1957;47(3):585-590.
Hospital Medicine, Nephrology.
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