DALE GROOM, M.D., F.A.C.P.; WADDY CHAPMAN, M.D.; WOFFORD W. FRANCIS; ANNE BASS, M.D.; YRO T. SIHVONEN, M.S.
The terms "physiologic," "functional," "innocent" and "benign" have customarily been applied to heart murmurs which, by definition, arise in presumably normal hearts. Such designations imply a distinction between these sounds and those produced by some abnormality of the cardiovascular system (though not necessarily excluding extracardiac disease, such as anemia or hyperthyroidism). The concept of functional vs. pathologic murmurs is perhaps more clinically useful than decisive; generally the assumption is that an individual either does or does not have a murmur, and that if he does it either is or is not indicative of organic heart disease.
It has been variously
GROOM D, CHAPMAN W, FRANCIS WW, BASS A, SIHVONEN YT. THE NORMAL SYSTOLIC MURMUR12. Ann Intern Med. ;52:134–144. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-52-1-134
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1960;52(1):134-144.
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