ARTHUR J. LUSKIN, M.D.; GERALD H. WHIPPLE, M.D.
It is well known that obesity and increasing age are associated with a tendency to leftward deviation of the electrical axis of the electrocardiogram. Nevertheless, the limits for the range of normal axis used clinically do not take these factors into account. A single range of normal is ordinarily applied to all adults regardless of their age and habitus because no quantitative standards have been developed. The aim of the present study was to evolve a nomogram which could be used easily in clinical electrocardiography to define the normal limits of electrical axis as influenced by relative body weight and
LUSKIN AJ, WHIPPLE GH. Effects of Age and Habitus upon the Mean Electrical Axis of the Electrocardiogram in Normal Males. Ann Intern Med. ;55:610–619. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-55-4-610
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1961;55(4):610-619.
Cardiac Diagnosis and Imaging, Cardiology.
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