I. S. Edelman, M.D.
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Transport of water and solute across cell membranes is described in terms of the chemical characteristics of the passengers, the properties of the cell membranes constituting the passages and the sources of energy needed to effect observed flows. The distinction between passive and active transport is based on the concept that if the force producing the flow resides in the external solutions, that is, concentration gradients, pressure gradients, electrical gradients, or thermal gradients, it is passive; whereas if it arises in the boundary or membrane and is derived from chemical bond energy, it is active. Applications of these concepts to
Edelman IS. Basic Principles of Transport Across Cell Membranes.. Ann Intern Med. ;56:697. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-56-4-697_2
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1962;56(4):697.
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