GEORGE D. LUDWIG, M.D.; JAMES F. TOOLE, M.D.; JOHN C. WOOD, M.D.
Ochronosis is usually associated with the rare hereditary metabolic disease, alcaptonuria, in which there is a defect in the hepatic enzyme, homogentisic acid oxidase, and consequently an accumulation in the blood and spill-over in the urine of homogentisic acid (1, 2). The term "ochronosis" was coined by Virchow (3) in 1866, to describe the grossly blue-black but microscopically yellow-brown (ochre) pigmentation of cartilage and other connective tissue found at necropsy in a 57-year-old man. In 1902, Albrecht (4) first suggested that alcaptonuria might cause ochronosis, and in 1904, Sir William Osler (5) made the first clinical diagnosis of alcaptonuric ochronosis
LUDWIG GD, TOOLE JF, WOOD JC. Ochronosis from Quinacrine (Atabrine). Ann Intern Med. 1963;59:378–384. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-59-3-378
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1963;59(3):378-384.
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