G. DANIEL COPELAND, M.D., F.A.C.P. (ASSOCIATE); NATHAN C. SALKY, M.D.; DANIEL A. BRODY, M.D.
Since 1906, when Cremer (1) first reported use of an intra-esophageal electrocardiographic electrode, such electrodes have been intermittently employed for the study of cardiac mechanisms. Because the esophagus is anatomically located close by the left atrium, a properly placed esophageal electrode is virtually a semidirect lead to the left atrium and electrocardiograms recorded from this position have very large P-waves. The P-waves are frequently small and difficult to identify in routine electrocardiograms recorded from body-surface electrodes, especially in complex cardiac mechanisms. In recent years, the unipolar esophageal lead has been used more frequently in the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias with
G. DANIEL COPELAND, NATHAN C. SALKY, DANIEL A. BRODY. Bipolar Esophageal Electrocardiography in Unusual Cardiac Mechanisms. Ann Intern Med. 1964;60:999–1008. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-60-6-999
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1964;60(6):999-1008.
Cardiac Diagnosis and Imaging, Cardiology.
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