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Uncritical spokesmen and uninformed critics classify clinical medicine and its investigative method, the clinical examination, as art or nonscience. This misconception protects unskilled practitioners, invites disdain from laboratory scientists, discourages medical students, and encourages propagation of dull, traditional textbooks of clinical diagnosis. A fortunate combination of factors—concern with increasing "pure" research in clinical departments, applications of quantitative methods to signs and symptoms, increasing protests from frustrated students, and the final realization that laboratory-derived data are no substitute for careful bedside study—has led to the publication of journal articles and textbooks that emphasize correctly the precision, scientific basis and meaningful application
Clinical Examination.Leopold's Principles and Methods of Physical Diagnosis.. Ann Intern Med. 1965;63:543–544. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-63-3-543_2
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1965;63(3):543-544.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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