FRED L. LIEBERMAN, M.D.; RYUGO HIDEMURA, M.D.; ROBERT L. PETERS, M.D.; TELFER B. REYNOLDS, M.D., F.A.C.P.
Hydrothorax has long been recognized as a complication of cirrhosis, but there has been much speculation as to its origin. Higgins and his colleagues (1) suggested it forms from the plasma as a result of hypoalbuminemia and a decreased colloid osmotic pressure. Morrow, Kanter, and Armen (2) considered leakage of plasma from a hypertensive azygous venous system as being a possible cause. Eisenmenger (3) has suggested it may be lymph leaking from a thoracic duct system overburdened by ascites reabsorption. All investigators agree, however, that it is associated with the presence of ascites, and isolated case studies have provided evidence
FRED L. LIEBERMAN, RYUGO HIDEMURA, ROBERT L. PETERS, TELFER B. REYNOLDS. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hydrothorax Complicating Cirrhosis with Ascites. Ann Intern Med. 1966;64:341–351. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-64-2-341
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1966;64(2):341-351.
Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Liver Disease.
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