HARRY P. WARD, M.D.; JANET HOLMAN, M.T. (ASCP)
Nucleated red cells in the peripheral smear have been described in diseases of diverse etiology (1-3). In general, the barrier that prevents normoblasts from entering the circulation is violated by four processes:  infiltration of the bone marrow, for example, carcinoma, leukemia, myeloma;  extramedullary hemopoiesis, for example, polycythemia vera, myeloid metaplasia;  splenectomy; and  maximal response of the bone marrow, for example, hemorrhage, infection, hemolysis. Recently, we have been impressed with the transient occurrence of nucleated red cells in the blood smear of patients with pulmonary disease and in patients with congestive heart failure. The association of congestive
WARD HP, HOLMAN J. The Association of Nucleated Red Cells in the Peripheral Smear with Hypoxemia. Ann Intern Med. 1967;67:1190–1194. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-67-6-1190
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1967;67(6):1190-1194.
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