CARL S. ALEXANDER, M.D.
In late 1963 or early 1964 certain brewers in Quebec, Canada, and the United States began adding cobalt to beer in order to stabilize the foam. Within months an epidemic form of fulminating cardiomyopathy recognizably distinct from alcoholic cardiomyopathy and beriberi occurred in Quebec City, Canada (1). Later the syndrome was identified at the Veterans Hospitals in Omaha, Nebr. (2) and Minneapolis, Minn. (3) and in Leuven, Belgium (4). It is impossible to estimate the total number of cases that occurred around the world, but some idea might be gained from the knowledge that about 25% of all the beer
ALEXANDER CS. Cobalt and the Heart. Ann Intern Med. ;70:411–413. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-70-2-411
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1969;70(2):411-413.
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