NATHAN B. EDDY, M.D.
Codeine was first isolated in 1832, 25 years after the isolation of morphine, but its chemical relationship as the methyl ether of morphine was not established until 50 years later. Its clinical use as a morphine-like substance began almost immediately, as an antitussive as early as 1838. Its clinical use spread rapidly with recognition of its relative safety and its ability to substitute for morphine in many instances. Its relative safety was evident not only because of its lesser respiratory depressant effect (even to the present relatively few cases of poisoning and extremely few fatalities have been reported), but also
NATHAN B. EDDY. Codeine and Its Alternates for Pain and Cough Relief. Ann Intern Med. 1969;71:1209–1212. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-71-6-1209
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1969;71(6):1209-1212.
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