Robert S. Schwartz, M.D.
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There is a growing body of evidence that most neoplasms, whether those induced in experimental animals or those arising spontaneously in humans, are antigenic. Several classes of human cancers have been found to possess unique antigenic determinants. In some instances the tumor antigens are immunochemically identical with or very similar to embryonic antigens and hence are called carcinoembryonic antigens. They probably result from dedifferentiation of the neoplastic cell. Immune responses to these antigens have been detected in patients with cancer, but there is no proof that immunity to human tumor antigens is protective. Indeed, some evidence suggests that the production
Schwartz RS. The Immunology of Cancer.. Ann Intern Med. 1972;76:854. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-76-5-854_2
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1972;76(5):854.
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