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Although the frank vectorcardiographic lead system is used in most laboratories, the author nonetheless espouses and describes his extensive experience with another lead system reported by Helm. The latter system has no compensating resistor networks simplifying electrical maintenance and employs large sponge electrodes which circumvent problems with lead placement. However, very little applied research has been done using Helm's lead system. Since normal values are lacking, the author attempts to fill this void by reporting his own data based on a population of approximately 400 "normal patients." This is a relatively small group, especially after it is divided into the
A System of Vectorcardiographic Interpretation.. Ann Intern Med. ;83:437. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-83-3-437_2
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1975;83(3):437.
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