DONALD G. FRASER, PHARM, D.
To the editor: Effective relief of pain may be achieved by one or more of the following methods: modification of the pathologic process; elevation of the pain threshold; interruption of pain pathways; and immobilization (1). These approaches are often effective in relieving pain, but where do we turn when we encounter a patient who is no longer able to swallow? What do we recommend for a patient whose muscle mass is so diminished that administration of intramuscular injections becomes extremely painful, or the patient who simply refuses to accept intramuscular or oral medication? One solution to the problem is to
FRASER DG. Intravenous Morphine Infusion for Chronic Pain. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:781–782. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-93-5-781_3
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1980;93(5):781-782.
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