PETER H. STONE, M.D.; ELLIOTT M. ANTMAN, M.D.; JAMES E. MULLER, M.D.; EUGENE BRAUNWALD, M.D.
The calcium channel blocking agents have multiple hemodynamic effects that make them potentially valuable in treating many cardiovascular disorders. They are potent dilators of coronary and peripheral arteries and in isolated tissue preparations exert potent negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic effects. In intact animals the peripheral arterial vasodilatation induces reflex-mediated adrenergic activity, which opposes the direct negative inotropic, chronotropic, dromotropic, and hypotensive effects. The individual calcium channel blockers have different relative potencies on various cardiovascular functions. The net hemodynamic and electrophysiologic effect of each agent, therefore, results from a complex interplay of direct and reflex phenomena. The clinical efficacy of these agents in classic angina pectoris relates to their ability to decrease afterload, myocardial contractility, and heart rate and increase coronary blood flow. The agents have been used to prevent coronary spasm in Prinzmetal's variant angina. The negative inotropic effects of verapamil are valuable in improving the symptoms and hemodynamic disturbances of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The role of these agents in treating arterial hypertension, unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, and ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass needs to be determined.
PETER H. STONE, ELLIOTT M. ANTMAN, JAMES E. MULLER, EUGENE BRAUNWALD. Calcium Channel Blocking Agents in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disorders. Part II: Hemodynamic Effects and Clinical Applications. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:886–904. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-93-6-886
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1980;93(6):886-904.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Hypertension, Nephrology.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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