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With over 80 000 patients currently undergoing dialysis in the United States, it is clear that chronic renal failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition, over $3 billion annually are being spent by Medicare alone to help support these patients. Surely a better understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic renal disease and the inevitability of its progression is sorely needed.
Once chronic renal failure has progressed to end-stage, the role of the clinician changes to one of optimizing the quality of life for the patient. This role requires a clear appreciation of the complications of chronic
Chronic Renal Disease: Causes, Complications, and Treatment.. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104:899–900. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-104-6-899_2
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1986;104(6):899-900.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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