Thomas C. Merigan, MD; Gail Skowron, MD; Samuel A. Bozzette, MD; Douglas Richman, MD; Raj Uttamchandani, MD; Margaret Fischl, MD; Robert Schooley, MD; Martin Hirsch, MD; Whaijen Soo, MD, PhD; Carla Pettinelli, MD, PhD; Herbert Schaumburg, MD
Study Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of dideoxycytidine in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or advanced AIDS-related complex.
Design: A partially randomized phase I and II outpatient, dose-ranging study.
Setting: Four university medical centers involving government-supported referral AIDS Clinical Trial Units.
Patients: Sixty-one patients with AIDS or advanced AIDS-related complex and 100 pg/mL or more serum p24 antigen titers.
Interventions: Dideoxycytidine was administered orally at 0. 06, 0.03, 0.01, or 0.005 mg/kg body weight every 4 hours for 3 to 6 months depending on tolerance and benefit.
Measurements and Main Results: In patients receiving 0. 06 and 0.03 mg/kg, diffuse erythematous rash, fever, and aphthous stomatitis occurred in the first weeks of therapy, but resolved later. Hematopoietic suppression was rare. Peripheral sensory neuropathy occurred in patients receiving 0.06 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg and improved after discontinuation of therapy. Serum p24 antigen fell significantly (P < 0.01) from baseline entry values in most of these patients. The CD4 lymphocytes rose transiently at the 0.03 mg/kg dosage. At the 0.005 mg/kg dosage, skin rash, fever, and aphthous stomatitis were mild or absent. Peripheral neuropathy, which occurred in all patients receiving 0.01 mg/kg was less severe than at higher dosages. At the 0.005 mg/kg dosage, peripheral neuropathy was occasionally seen. Significant suppression of serum p24 antigen was seen in most patients with AIDS-related complex receiving 0.01 mg/kg and less frequently in patients receiving 0.005 mg/kg.
Conclusions: Less toxic regimens of dideoxycytidine merit clinical assessment for advanced anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection. Several studies alternating dideoxycytidine and zidovudine are in progress.
Thomas C. Merigan, Gail Skowron, Samuel A. Bozzette, Douglas Richman, Raj Uttamchandani, Margaret Fischl, et al. Circulating p24 Antigen Levels and Responses to Dideoxycytidine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections: A Phase I and II Study. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:189–194. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-110-3-189
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1989;110(3):189-194.
HIV, Infectious Disease.
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