Anthony S. Fauci, MD; Robert C. Gallo, MD; Scott Koenig, MD, PhD; Jonas Salk, MD; Robert H. Purcell, MD
The development of a safe and effective vaccine for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is complicated by several unique scientific, logistic, and ethical issues. These issues include a lack of understanding of protective immunity to HIV and disease development, the absence of an adequate and convenient animal model for studying HIV infection, and difficulties in phase III evaluation of candidate vaccines. Because HIV can be transmitted as either a cellfree or cell-associated virus, a protective immune response against HIV infection will likely require both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. A neutralizing antibody against HIV and an antibody involved in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity have been shown in HIV-infected persons, but their precise relation to protection is unclear. Cytotoxic lymphocytes from HIV-infected persons have been shown to lyse target cells expressing HIV or its proteins. Cloned T cells have been developed that manifest HIV-specific, major histocompatibility-complex class I-restricted cytotoxic capabilities that are broadly specific. Thus far, all attempts to protect chimpanzees, currently the only suitable animal model, from HIV infection have failed. Ongoing vaccine studies in humans include phase I trials of recombinant proteins of the HIV envelope in uninfected persons as well as the administration of whole killed virus to persons already infected with HIV. Rapid progress is being made in the development of new animal models for HIV infection. The establishment of alternative animal models, both primate and small animal models, will greatly facilitate the development of a vaccine for HIV infection.
Fauci AS, Gallo RC, Koenig S, Salk J, Purcell RH. Development and Evaluation of a Vaccine for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:373–385. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-110-5-373
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1989;110(5):373-385.
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