Robert A. Larsen, MD; Samuel Bozzette, MD; J. Allen McCutchan, MD; Joseph Chiu, MD; Mary Ann Leal, MD; Douglas D. Richman, MD; California Collaborative Treatment Group
Study Objective: To assess the frequency of persistent Cryptococcus neoformans infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after receiving apparently adequate treatment for meningitis.
Design: Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid were cultured at the conclusion of primary therapy to assess the adequacy of treatment.
Setting: Outpatient clinics at three medical centers.
Patients: Patients had C. neoformans grown in culture from cerebrospinal fluid. Primary therapy consisted of either 2.0 g of amphotericin B alone; 6 weeks of combination therapy with flucytosine; or, if flucytosine was poorly tolerated, an adjusted minimum total amphotericin B dose. To meet criteria for adequate treatment of meningitis all patients had two sequential cerebrospinal fluid samples which were culture negative.
Measurements and Main Results: Nine of forty-one patients grew C. neoformans from urine after completion of primary treatment, but none had urinary symptoms. Fungi were visualized in expressed prostatic secretions in 4 of these patients. One patient refused further treatment and developed cryptococcemia within 5 weeks. Three patients received additional amphotericin B; all had persistent funguria without systemic relapse. Six patients received fluconazole; 4 became urine culture negative, and 2 had systemic relapse.
Conclusion: The persistence of urinary C. neoformans after adequate therapy for meningitis suggests that the urinary tract (probably the prostate) is a sequestered reservoir of infection from which systemic relapse may occur.
Larsen RA, Bozzette S, McCutchan JA, Chiu J, Leal MA, Richman DD, et al. Persistent Cryptococcus neoformans Infection of the Prostate after Successful Treatment of Meningitis. Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:125–128. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-111-2-125
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1989;111(2):125-128.
CNS Infections, Infectious Disease, Neurology.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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