Andrew R. Zolopa, MD; Robert W. Shafer, MD; Ann Warford, PhD; Jose G. Montoya, MD; Phillip Hsu, BA; David Katzenstein, MD; Thomas C. Merigan, MD; Brad Efron, PhD
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Mitch Katz, MD, of the Department of Public Health, San Francisco, for critical review of the manuscript, and John Sninsky, PhD, of Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, California, for contributing PCR kits and reagents used in the HIV-1 sequencing reactions.
Requests for Reprints: Andrew R. Zolopa, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographical Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Grant Building, Room S-156, Stanford, CA 94305; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Zolopa, Shafer, Warford, Montoya, Hsu, Katzenstein, and Merigan: Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Grant Building Room S-156, Stanford, CA 94305.
Dr. Efron: Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Sequoia Hall, Room 132, Stanford CA 94305.
Tests for resistance to HIV drugs are available for clinical use; however, their predictive value has not been fully assessed.
To determine HIV-1 genotypic predictors of a virologic response to saquinavir–ritonavir therapy in patients in whom at least one previous protease inhibitor-containing regimen had failed and to compare the predictive value of baseline genotype with that of standard clinical evaluation.
Retrospective clinical cohort study.
University-based HIV clinic.
54 HIV-1-infected adults treated with saquinavir–ritonavir who had experienced virologic failure while receiving a protease inhibitor-containing regimen for at least 3 months.
HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease gene sequences, CD4 cell counts, clinical characteristics, detailed antiretroviral treatment history, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at baseline and at three follow-up time points (median, 4, 12, and 26 weeks). Virologic failure was defined as a plasma HIV RNA level greater than 1000 copies/mL.
In 22 patients (41%), a plasma HIV-1 RNA level less than 500 copies/mL was achieved by week 12; in 15 patients (28%), this response was maintained through week 26. Clinical characteristics predicting a poorer response included a diagnosis of AIDS, lower CD4 cell count, and higher plasma HIV RNA level (P < 0.03). Number of previous nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, previous protease inhibitor therapy, and duration of previous protease inhibitor therapy were predictors of poorer response (P < 0.01). Multivariate regression models revealed that protease mutations present at the initiation of saquinavir–ritonavir therapy were the strongest predictors of virologic response. A model of clinical features explained up to 45% of the variation in virologic outcomes by week 12, whereas the explained variance was 71% when genotypic predictors were included.
In patients in whom protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy fails, HIV-1 genotype is predictive of virologic response to subsequent therapy. This predictive capacity adds to that of standard clinical evaluation.
Andrew R. Zolopa, Robert W. Shafer, Ann Warford, Jose G. Montoya, Phillip Hsu, David Katzenstein, et al. HIV-1 Genotypic Resistance Patterns Predict Response to saquinavir–ritonavir Therapy in Patients in Whom Previous Protease Inhibitor Therapy Had Failed. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:813–821. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-131-11-199912070-00003
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(11):813-821.
HIV, Infectious Disease.
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