Lizzy M. Brewster, MD; Gert A. van Montfrans, MD, PhD; Jos Kleijnen, MD, PhD
Note: Some analyses included in this paper are reported in a Cochrane Collaboration systematic review, which is to be published in the Cochrane Library. Cochrane Collaboration reviews are updated regularly to take account of new data from randomized, controlled trials.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the Dutch Cochrane Centre and the Cochrane Heart and Hypertension groups for their ongoing support during this review and all contacted authors and trial investigators for their willingness to supply supplemental trial data.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest:Grants received: G.A. van Montfrans (Pfizer, Yamanouchi, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Menarini Group).
Corresponding Author: Lizzy M. Brewster, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, F4-253, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Brewster: Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, F4-222, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Dr. van Montfrans: Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Dr. Kleijnen: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
Hypertension occurs more frequently and is generally more severe in black persons than in white persons, leading to excess morbidity and mortality.
To systematically review the efficacy of different antihypertensive drugs in reducing blood pressure, morbidity, and mortality in hypertensive black adults.
The following databases were searched from their inception through November 2003: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), African Index Medicus, and the Cochrane Library. PubMed was also searched from September 2003 through March 2004. Searches were conducted without language restriction.
Randomized, controlled trials of drugs versus placebo (blood pressure outcomes) or drugs versus placebo or other drugs (morbidity and mortality outcomes).
2 reviewers independently extracted data.
The efficacy of β-blockers in reducing systolic blood pressure and the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in achieving diastolic blood pressure goals did not significantly differ from that of placebo (weighted mean difference for β-blockers, −3.53 mm Hg [95% CI, −7.51 to 0.45 mm Hg]; relative risk for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 1.35 [CI, 0.81 to 2.26]). In the pooled analyses, other reviewed drugs (calcium-channel blockers, diuretics, central sympatholytics, α-blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers) were more effective than placebo in reducing blood pressure, but only calcium-channel blockers remained effective in all prespecified subgroups, including patients with a baseline diastolic blood pressure of 110 mm Hg or greater. Main morbidity and mortality outcomes did not differ significantly between treatment groups when drugs were combined to reach blood pressure goals. However, trial results indicated a greater occurrence of diabetes with diuretics and a higher risk for cardiovascular events with drug regimens that included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
This meta-analysis evaluated the blood pressure lowering–efficacy of monotherapy only.
Drugs differ in their efficacy for reducing blood pressure in black patients, but there is no solid evidence that efficacy for reducing morbidity and mortality outcomes differs once patients achieve the blood pressure goal.
Brewster LM, van Montfrans GA, Kleijnen J. Systematic Review: Antihypertensive Drug Therapy in Black Patients. Ann Intern Med. ;141:614–627. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-141-8-200410190-00009
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(8):614-627.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Hypertension, Nephrology.
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