Yoav Golan, MD; Michael P. Wolf, MD; Stephen G. Pauker, MD; John B. Wong, MD; Susan Hadley, MD
Note: This paper was presented in part at the 31st Congress of The Society of Critical Care Medicine, San Diego, California, 26-30 January 2002.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Jerome Wilson, MA, PhD; Yehuda Carmeli, MD; and Corrado Marini, MD, for their contribution to this work, and Debra Poutsiaka, MD, for reviewing this manuscript.
Grant Support: In part by Pfizer Inc. and the National Library of Medicine (T15 LM07092-11).
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: Consultancies: S. Hadley (Schering-Plough); Honoraria: Y. Golan (Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Wyeth, Merck & Co. Inc.); J.B. Wong (Schering-Plough, National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Drug Abuse, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality), S. Hadley (Merck & Co. Inc., Pfizer Inc.); Grants received: J.B. Wong (National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Drug Abuse, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Schering-Plough), S. Hadley (Astellas Pharma, Pfizer Inc.).
Requests for Single Reprints: Yoav Golan, MD, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts-New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Box 041, Boston, MA 02111; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Golan and Hadley: Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Box 041, 750 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111.
Dr. Wolf: 613 Woodhills Drive, Goshen, NY 10924.
Dr. Pauker: Department of Medicine, Tufts-New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111.
Dr. Wong: Division of Clinical Decision Making, Informatics, and Telemedicine, Tufts-New England Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: Y. Golan, M.P. Wolf, S.G. Pauker, J.B. Wong, S. Hadley.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: Y. Golan, M.P. Wolf, S.G. Pauker, J.B. Wong, S. Hadley.
Drafting of the article: Y. Golan, S.G. Pauker, J.B. Wong, S. Hadley.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: Y. Golan, M.P. Wolf, S.G. Pauker, J.B. Wong, S. Hadley.
Final approval of the article: Y. Golan, M.P. Wolf, S.G. Pauker, J.B. Wong, S. Hadley.
Provision of study materials or patients: Y. Golan.
Statistical expertise: Y. Golan, S.G. Pauker, J.B. Wong.
Obtaining of funding: Y. Golan, J.B. Wong, S. Hadley.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: Y. Golan, J.B. Wong.
Collection and assembly of data: Y. Golan.
Mortality from invasive candidiasis is high. Low culture sensitivity and treatment delay contribute to increased mortality, but nonselective early therapy may result in excess costs and drug resistance.
To determine the cost-effectiveness of anti-Candida strategies for high-risk patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Cost-effectiveness decision model.
Published data to 10 May 2005, identified from MEDLINE and Cochrane Library searches, ICU databases, expert estimates, and actual hospital costs.
Patients in the ICU with suspected infection who have not responded to antibacterial therapy.
Fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, or lipid formulation of amphotericin B given as either empirical or culture-based therapy and no anti-Candida therapy.
Incremental life expectancy and incremental cost per discounted life-year (DLY) saved.
Ten percent of the target population will have invasive candidiasis. Empirical caspofungin therapy is the most effective strategy but is expensive ($295 115 per DLY saved). Empirical fluconazole therapy is the most reasonable strategy ($12 593 per DLY saved) and decreases mortality from 44.0% to 30.4% in patients with invasive candidiasis and from 22.4% to 21.0% in the overall target cohort.
Empirical fluconazole therapy is reasonable for likelihoods of invasive candidiasis greater than 2.5% or fluconazole resistance less than 24.0%. For higher resistance levels, empirical caspofungin therapy is preferred. For low prevalences of invasive candidiasis, culture-based fluconazole is reasonable. For prevalences exceeding 60%, empirical caspofungin therapy is reasonable. For caspofungin to be reasonable at a prevalence of 10%, its cost must be reduced by 58%.
Less severe illness and limited use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, typical of smaller hospitals, could result in a lower risk for invasive candidiasis.
In patients in the ICU with suspected infection who have not responded to antibiotic treatment, empirical fluconazole should reduce mortality at an acceptable cost. The use of empirical strategies in low-risk patients is not justified.
Golan Y, Wolf MP, Pauker SG, Wong JB, Hadley S. Empirical Anti-Candida Therapy among Selected Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:857–869. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-12-200512200-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(12):857-869.
Infectious Disease, Pulmonary/Critical Care.
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