Cora McGreevy, MB, BCh, BAO; David Williams, MB, BAO, BCh, PhD
Potential Conflicts of Interest: Disclosures can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M11-1745.
Requests for Single Reprints: Cora McGreevy, MB, BCh, BAO, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. McGreevy and Williams: Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: C. McGreevy, D. Williams.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: D. Williams.
Drafting of the article: C. McGreevy, D. Williams.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: C. McGreevy, D. Williams.
Final approval of the article: C. McGreevy, D. Williams.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: C. McGreevy.
Collection and assembly of data: C. McGreevy.
McGreevy C, Williams D. New Insights About Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: A Narrative Review. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155:820-826. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-155-12-201112200-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(12):820-826.
The worsening worldwide trend toward nutritional insufficiency and the emerging knowledge of the nonhormonal actions of vitamin D and its metabolites have increased interest in the synthesis, metabolism, and action of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke, as well as other cardiovascular-related diseases, such as diabetes, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction.
This review discusses the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, evaluates the worldwide prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and discusses recent evidence for the association between hypovitaminosis D and cardiovascular disease. Few randomized, controlled trials have evaluated the effect of vitamin D replacement on cardiovascular outcomes, and the results have been inconclusive or contradictory. Carefully designed randomized, controlled trials are essential to evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing cardiovascular disease.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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