J. Daryl Thornton, MD, MPH; Marilyn Alejandro-Rodriguez; Janeen B. León, MS, RD, LD; Jeffrey M. Albert, PhD; Evelyn L. Baldeon; Liza M. De Jesus, BA; Ana Gallardo; Sabina Hossain; Elba Adriana Perez; Jovana Y. Martin, MD; Susan Lasalvia, RN, BSN; Kristine A. Wong, MJ, MPH; Margaret D. Allen, MD, DrSC(Hon); Mark Robinson, MA; Charles Heald; Gordon Bowen, MS; Ashwini R. Sehgal, MD
Disclaimer: Drs. Thornton and Albert had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All persons who contributed substantially to this work were included in the author list.
Grant Support: By the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (grant 1-P60MD002265-01), National Center for Research Resources (grant UL1RR024989), and Robert Wood Johnson Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program.
Potential Conflicts of Interest: Disclosures can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M11-0571.
Reproducible Research Statement:Statistical code: Available from Dr. Thornton (e-mail, mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org). Study protocol and data set: Not available.
Requests for Single Reprints: J. Daryl Thornton, MD, MPH, Center for Reducing Health Disparities, MetroHealth Medial Center, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Rammelkamp R209A, Cleveland, OH 44109; e-mail, mailto:email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Thornton, Ms. De Jesus, Ms. Perez, Ms. Lasalvia, and Mr. Robinson: 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Rammelkamp R209A, Cleveland, OH 44109.
Ms. Alejandro-Rodriguez: 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Rammelkamp R208A, Cleveland, OH 44109.
Ms. León: 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Rammelkamp R206A, Cleveland, OH 44109.
Dr. Albert: 10900 Euclid Avenue, WG-43, Cleveland, OH 44106-4945.
Ms. Baldeon: 307 Sanford Street, Painesville, OH 44077.
Ms. Gallardo: 4950 West 220th Street, Fairview Park, OH 44126.
Ms. Hossain: 268 Willow Street, New Haven, CT 06511.
Dr. Martin: 176F, Room 5329, 619 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL 35233.
Ms. Wong: PO Box 401, Half Moon Bay, CA 94019.
Dr. Allen: 1201 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98101-2795.
Mr. Heald and Mr. Bowen: 4775 Richmond Road, Cleveland, OH 44128-5919.
Dr. Sehgal: 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Rammelkamp R212A, Cleveland, OH 44109.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: J. Thornton, J. León, J. Albert, J. Martin, M. Allen, A. Sehgal.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: J. Thornton, M. Alejandro-Rodriguez, J. Albert, L. De Jesus, C. Heald, A. Sehgal.
Drafting of the article: J. Thornton.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: J. Thornton, J. Martin, G. Bowen, A. Sehgal.
Final approval of the article: J. Thornton, J. Martin, C. Heald, G. Bowen, A. Sehgal.
Provision of study materials or patients: J. Thornton, M. Alejandro-Rodriguez, J. Martin, K. Wong, M. Allen.
Statistical expertise: J. Thornton, J. Albert, C. Heald, A. Sehgal.
Obtaining of funding: J. Thornton, J. León, M. Allen, A. Sehgal.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: J. Thornton, M. Alejandro-Rodriguez, J. León, L. De Jesus, S. Hossain, J. Martin, M. Robinson, G. Bowen, A. Sehgal.
Collection and assembly of data: J. Thornton, M. Alejandro-Rodriguez, E. Baldeon, L. De Jesus, A. Gallardo, S. Hossain, E. Perz, J. Martin, S. Lasalvia
Figure. No caption available.
Thornton JD, Alejandro-Rodriguez M, León JB, Albert JM, Baldeon EL, De Jesus LM, et al. Effect of an iPod Video Intervention on Consent to Donate Organs: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:483-490. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-156-7-201204030-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(7):483-490.
The gap between the supply of organs available for transplantation and demand is growing, especially among ethnic groups.
To evaluate the effect of a video designed to address concerns of ethnic groups about organ donation.
Cluster randomized, controlled trial. Randomization was performed by using a random-number table with centralized allocation concealment. Participants and investigators assessing outcomes were not blinded to group assignment. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00870506)
Twelve branches of the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles in northeastern Ohio.
952 participants aged 15 to 66 years.
Video (intervention; n = 443) or usual Bureau of Motor Vehicles license practices (control; n = 509).
The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who provided consent for organ donation on a newly acquired driver's license, learner's permit, or state identification card. Secondary outcomes included willingness to make a living kidney donation to a family member in need and personal beliefs about donation.
More participants who viewed the video consented to donate organs than control participants (84% vs. 72%; difference, 12 percentage points [95% CI, 6 to 17 percentage points]). The video was effective among black participants (76% vs. 54%; difference, 22 percentage points [CI, 9 to 35 percentage points]) and white participants (88% vs. 77%; difference, 11 percentage points [CI, 5 to 15 percentage points]). At the end of the trial, fewer intervention than control participants reported having insufficient information about organ donation (34% vs. 44%; difference, −10 percentage points [CI, −16 to −4 percentage points]), wanting to be buried with all of their organs (14% vs. 25%; difference, −11 percentage points [CI, −16 to −6 percentage points]), and having conflicts with organ donation (7% vs. 11%; difference, −4 percentage points [CI, −8 to −2 percentage points]).
How the observed increases in consent to donate organs might translate into a greater organ supply in the region is unclear.
Exposure to a brief video addressing concerns that ethnic groups have about organ donation just before obtaining a license, permit, or identification card increased consent to donate organs among white and black participants.
National Institutes of Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
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