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The full report is titled “Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Tobacco Use in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.” It is in the 15 October 2013 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 159, pages 552-557). The author is V.A. Moyer, on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
This article was published online first at www.annals.org on 26 August 2013.
Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Tobacco Use in Children and Adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159: I-36. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-8-201310150-00699
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(8): I-36.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) developed these recommendations. The USPSTF is a group of health experts that reviews published research and makes recommendations about preventive health care.
Tobacco use, most commonly in the form of cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Smoking increases a person's risk for heart disease, lung disease, dental disease, and some types of cancer. Nicotine is the addictive substance in tobacco; it can make quitting very difficult.
A person's path to daily smoking and nicotine dependence can be described in 5 stages: susceptible to smoking (never smoked), initiation (trying the first cigarette), experimentation (repeatedly trying cigarettes, may show signs of addiction), established smoking (regular smoking, likely to show signs of addiction), and nicotine dependence.
Children and adolescents are susceptible to smoking initiation and experimentation. Although it can take up to 2 years to develop nicotine addiction, some children and adolescents develop addiction more quickly. Many strategies aim to discourage people from using tobacco, including public service messages, restrictions on smoking in public, taxes and age restrictions for tobacco purchases, education, and counseling by health care providers. The USPSTF wanted to develop recommendations about whether children and adolescents should receive interventions to prevent tobacco use as part of routine primary care.
The USPSTF reviewed published research on the effectiveness of primary care interventions on the rates of starting and stopping tobacco use in children and adolescents. It also looked for studies of the effect of these interventions on health outcomes, whether young smokers continued to smoke as adults, and the harms of these interventions.
The USPSTF found that interventions, such as face-to-face or telephone interactions with a health care provider, written materials, and computer applications, can lower the risk for smoking initiation in school-aged children and adolescents. The USPSTF believes that the harms of such interventions are small or none.
The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians provide interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent school-aged children and adolescents from ever trying a first cigarette.
These recommendations do not address what primary care clinicians should do for children and adolescents who are already regular smokers.
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Cardiology, Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse, Coronary Risk Factors, Smoking, Prevention/Screening.
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