Ian S. Campbell, MD; Joel D. Howell, MD, PhD; H. Hughes Evans, MD, PhD
Grant Support: This project began as a scholarly activity at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine and was continued as postgraduate research at the University of Michigan Internal Medicine Residency Program. Neither institution provided direct financial assistance during this research.
Disclosures: Authors have disclosed no conflicts of interest. Forms can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M16-0025.
Requests for Single Reprints: Ian S. Campbell, MD, Division of General Internal Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1215 21st Avenue South, Suite 6000 MCE, NT, Nashville, TN 37232; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Campbell: Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1215 21st Avenue South, Suite 6000 MCE, NT, Nashville, TN 37232.
Dr. Howell: University of Michigan, North Campus Research Complex, 2800 Plymouth Road, Building 16, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Dr. Evans: Emory University, 1760 Haygood Drive, Suite W417, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: I.S. Campbell, J.D. Howell, H.H. Evans
Analysis and interpretation of the data: I.S. Campbell, J.D. Howell, H.H. Evans
Drafting of the article: I.S. Campbell, J.D. Howell, H.H. Evans
Critical revision for important intellectual content: I.S. Campbell, J.D Howell, H.H. Evans
Final approval of the article: I.S. Campbell, J.D. Howell, H.H. Evans
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: J.D. Howell
Collection and assembly of data: I.S. Campbell, J.D. Howell
Campbell IS, Howell JD, Evans HH. Visceral Vistas: Basil Hirschowitz and the Birth of Fiberoptic Endoscopy. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165:214-218. doi: 10.7326/M16-0025
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(3):214-218.
Fiberoptic endoscopy was developed at the University of Michigan in the 1950s by gastroenterology fellow Basil Hirschowitz and 2 physicists. Previous methods to visualize the gastrointestinal lumen used rigid instruments that relied on rudimentary optical systems. They were limited in reach and caused patients considerable discomfort. Fiberoptic technology dramatically changed endoscopic practice. The fiberoptic endoscope, or fiberscope, was a flexible instrument that allowed direct inspection of the gastrointestinal lumen. Although many practicing endoscopists initially resisted its adoption, the fiberscope ultimately held sway. Studying the period from the fiberscope's first introduction in the late 1950s to its more widespread acceptance in the late 1960s may help us understand how a new technology makes its way into routine clinical practice.
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