Dean Schillinger, MD; Jessica Tran, BA; Christina Mangurian, MD, MS; Cristin Kearns, DDS, MBA
This article was published at www.annals.org on 1 November 2016.
Grant Support: Dr. Schillinger was supported by grant 2P30DK092924-06. Ms. Tran was supported by grant 5T32DK007418-35. Dr. Mangurian was supported by grant K23MH093689. Dr. Kearns was supported by National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research grant DE-007306.
Disclosures: Disclosures can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=L16-0534.
Schillinger D, Tran J, Mangurian C, Kearns C. Do Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Cause Obesity and Diabetes? Industry and the Manufacture of Scientific Controversy. Ann Intern Med. [Epub ahead of print 1 November 2016]:. doi: 10.7326/L16-0534
Download citation file:
Published: Ann Intern Med. 2016.
Background: The outcomes of recent regulatory initiatives, tax measures, and federal nutritional guidance designed to curb consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have hinged on whether these beverages are a proven cause of obesity and diabetes. The SSB industry has opposed such initiatives, claiming that causation is scientifically controversial (1). We carried out a comprehensive literature survey to determine whether experimental studies that found no association between SSBs and obesity- and diabetes-related outcomes (negative studies) are more likely than positive studies to have received financial support from this industry.
Methods: We searched PubMed from January 2001 to July 2016 for English-language experimental studies on the effects of SSB consumption on obesity- and diabetes-related outcomes, augmented by hand-searching recent reviews (Supplement, available at www.annals.org). Our strategy included (sugar* or “sugar-sweetened” or sweet* or fructose) and (beverage* or soda or soft drink) and (obesity or BMI or weight and/or diabetes or metabolism). To focus on causation, we included articles with experimental designs and systematic reviews or meta-analyses of experimental research. We excluded observational studies and studies supported by SSB competitors (bottled water and dairy industries). We classified articles as having positive or negative associations versus no associations. We identified whether articles were independently funded or were funded by, or had authors with financial conflicts with, the SSB industry.
Learn more about subscription options.
Register Now for a free account.
Copyright © 2016 American College of Physicians. All Rights Reserved.
Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
Conditions of Use
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only