Song-Yi Park, PhD; Neal D. Freedman, PhD; Christopher A. Haiman, ScD; Loïc Le Marchand, MD, PhD; Lynne R. Wilkens, DrPH; Veronica Wendy Setiawan, PhD
Grant Support: By grant U01CA164973 from the National Cancer Institute.
Disclosures: Dr. Wilkens reports grants from the National Cancer Institute during the conduct of the study. Authors not named here have disclosed no conflicts of interest. Disclosures can also be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M16-2472.
Editors' Disclosures: Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Editor in Chief, reports that she has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD, Executive Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc, Senior Deputy Editor, reports that she has no relationships or interests to disclose. Deborah Cotton, MD, MPH, Deputy Editor, reports that she has no financial relationships or interest to disclose. Jaya K. Rao, MD, MHS, Deputy Editor, reports that she has stock holdings/options in Eli Lilly and Pfizer. Sankey V. Williams, MD, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Catharine B. Stack, PhD, MS, Deputy Editor for Statistics, reports that she has stock holdings in Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson.
Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Cohort description and questionnaires are available at www.uhcancercenter.org/research/the-multiethnic-cohort-study-mec. Statistical code: Available from Dr. Park (e-mail, email@example.com). Data set: Not available.
Requests for Single Reprints: Veronica Wendy Setiawan, PhD, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1450 Biggy Street, Room 1517G, Los Angeles, CA 90033; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Park: University of Hawai'i, 701 Ilalo Street, Honolulu, HI 96813.
Dr. Freedman: National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850.
Dr. Haiman: University of Southern California, 1450 Biggy Street, Room 1504, Los Angeles, CA 90033.
Dr. Le Marchand: University of Hawai'i Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo Street, Room 530, Honolulu, HI 96813.
Dr. Wilkens: University of Hawai'i Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo Street, Honolulu, HI 96813.
Dr. Setiawan: Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1450 Biggy Street, Room 1517G, Los Angeles, CA 90033.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: S.Y. Park, N.D. Freedman, L. Le Marchand, V.W. Setiawan.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: S.Y. Park, N.D. Freedman, C.A. Haiman, L.R. Wilkens, V.W. Setiawan.
Drafting of the article: S.Y. Park, N.D. Freedman, V.W. Setiawan.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: S.Y. Park, N.D. Freedman, C.A. Haiman, L. Le Marchand, L.R. Wilkens, V.W. Setiawan.
Final approval of the article: S.Y. Park, N.D. Freedman, C.A. Haiman, L. Le Marchand, L.R. Wilkens, V.W. Setiawan.
Provision of study materials or patients: L. Le Marchand.
Statistical expertise: N.D. Freedman, L.R. Wilkens.
Obtaining of funding: C.A. Haiman, L. Le Marchand, L.R. Wilkens.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: L. Le Marchand.
Collection and assembly of data: L. Le Marchand, L.R. Wilkens.
Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced risk for death in prospective cohort studies; however, data in nonwhites are sparse.
To examine the association of coffee consumption with risk for total and cause-specific death.
The MEC (Multiethnic Cohort), a prospective population-based cohort study established between 1993 and 1996.
Hawaii and Los Angeles, California.
185 855 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45 to 75 years at recruitment.
Outcomes were total and cause-specific mortality between 1993 and 2012. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire.
58 397 participants died during 3 195 484 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up, 16.2 years). Compared with drinking no coffee, coffee consumption was associated with lower total mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (1 cup per day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91]; 2 to 3 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.79 to 0.86]; ≥4 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.78 to 0.87]; P for trend < 0.001). Trends were similar between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Significant inverse associations were observed in 4 ethnic groups; the association in Native Hawaiians did not reach statistical significance. Inverse associations were also seen in never-smokers, younger participants (<55 years), and those who had not previously reported a chronic disease. Among examined end points, inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney disease.
Unmeasured confounding and measurement error, although sensitivity analysis suggested that neither was likely to affect results.
Higher consumption of coffee was associated with lower risk for death in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites.
National Cancer Institute.
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Park S, Freedman ND, Haiman CA, Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Nonwhite Populations. Ann Intern Med. [Epub ahead of print 11 July 2017]:. doi: 10.7326/M16-2472
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2017.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Diabetes, Diabetic Nephropathy, Endocrine and Metabolism.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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