Kurt Kroenke, MD; Robert L. Spitzer, MD; Janet B.W. Williams, DSW; Patrick O. Monahan, PhD; Bernd Löwe, MD, PhD
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Monika Mussell, PhD, and Dieter Schellberg, PhD, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, for their invaluable assistance in some data analyses.
Grant Support: Pfizer Inc.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: Consultancies: K. Kroenke (Eli Lilly Inc., Pfizer Inc.), J.B.W. Williams (Eli Lilly Inc., GlaxoSmithKline); Honoraria: K. Kroenke (Eli Lilly Inc., Wyeth); Grants received: K. Kroenke (Eli Lilly Inc., Pfizer Inc., Wyeth), R.L. Spitzer (Pfizer Inc.), J.B.W. Williams (Pfizer Inc.), B. Löwe (Pfizer Inc.).
Requests for Single Reprints: Kurt Kroenke, MD, Regenstrief Institute, 1050 Wishard Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Kroenke: Regenstrief Institute for Health Care, 1050 Wishard Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202.
Drs. Spitzer and Williams: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Unit 60, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10533.
Dr. Monahan: Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Indiana University, 1050 Wishard Boulevard, RG4 101, Indianapolis, IN 46202.
Dr. Löwe: Klinik für Psychosomatische und Allgemeine Klinische Medizin, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: K. Kroenke, R.L. Spitzer, J.B.W. Williams, B. Löwe.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: K. Kroenke, R.L. Spitzer, J.B.W. Williams, P.O. Monahan, B. Löwe.
Drafting of the article: K. Kroenke.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: K. Kroenke, R.L. Spitzer, P.O. Monahan, B. Löwe.
Final approval of the article: K. Kroenke, R.L. Spitzer, J.B.W. Williams, P.O. Manahan, B. Löwe.
Statistical expertise: K. Kroenke, R.L. Spitzer, P.O. Monahan.
Obtaining of funding: K. Kroenke, R.L. Spitzer, B. Löwe.
Collection and assembly of data: J.B.W. Williams.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Monahan PO, Löwe B. Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care: Prevalence, Impairment, Comorbidity, and Detection. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:317-325. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-146-5-200703060-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(5):317-325.
Anxiety and depression are the 2 most common mental health problems seen in the general medical setting (1–5). Although increasing attention has been paid to anxiety, it still lags far behind depression in terms of research as well as clinical and public health efforts in screening, diagnosis, and treating affected individuals. This is unfortunate given the prevalence of anxiety and its substantial impact on patient functioning, work productivity, and health care costs (6–14). More than 30 million Americans have a lifetime history of anxiety (15), and anxiety disorders cost an estimated $42 billion dollars per year in the United States alone, counting direct and indirect costs (16).
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