GEORGE D. LUDWIG, M.D.; JAMES F. TOOLE, M.D.; JOHN C. WOOD, M.D.
Ochronosis is usually associated with the rare hereditary metabolic disease, alcaptonuria, in which there is a defect in the hepatic enzyme, homogentisic acid oxidase, and consequently an accumulation in the blood and spill-over in the urine of homogentisic acid (1, 2). The term "ochronosis" was coined by Virchow (3) in 1866, to describe the grossly blue-black but microscopically yellow-brown (ochre) pigmentation of cartilage and other connective tissue found at necropsy in a 57-year-old man. In 1902, Albrecht (4) first suggested that alcaptonuria might cause ochronosis, and in 1904, Sir William Osler (5) made the first clinical diagnosis of alcaptonuric ochronosis
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LUDWIG GD, TOOLE JF, WOOD JC. Ochronosis from Quinacrine (Atabrine). Ann Intern Med. 1963;59:378–384. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-59-3-378
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1963;59(3):378-384.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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