FRED L. LIEBERMAN, M.D.; RYUGO HIDEMURA, M.D.; ROBERT L. PETERS, M.D.; TELFER B. REYNOLDS, M.D., F.A.C.P.
Hydrothorax has long been recognized as a complication of cirrhosis, but there has been much speculation as to its origin. Higgins and his colleagues (1) suggested it forms from the plasma as a result of hypoalbuminemia and a decreased colloid osmotic pressure. Morrow, Kanter, and Armen (2) considered leakage of plasma from a hypertensive azygous venous system as being a possible cause. Eisenmenger (3) has suggested it may be lymph leaking from a thoracic duct system overburdened by ascites reabsorption. All investigators agree, however, that it is associated with the presence of ascites, and isolated case studies have provided evidence
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LIEBERMAN FL, HIDEMURA R, PETERS RL, REYNOLDS TB. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hydrothorax Complicating Cirrhosis with Ascites. Ann Intern Med. 1966;64:341–351. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-64-2-341
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1966;64(2):341-351.
Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Liver Disease.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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