JOHN J. SCHWAB, M.D.; MARTIN BIALOW, M.D.; JUDITH M. BROWN, M.A.; CHARLES E. HOLZER, B.A.
SCHWAB JJ, BIALOW M, BROWN JM, HOLZER CE. Diagnosing Depression in Medical Inpatients. Ann Intern Med. 1967;67:695-707. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-67-4-695
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1967;67(4):695-707.
Since the days of hippocrates, depression has been recognized as a distinctive psychobiologic mode. Engel (1) said that depression, developmentally, is the latter of two basic biologic reactions, anxiety being the first. Historically, depression has been known as melancholia, and descriptions are colorful and insightful. Hippocrates spoke of melancholic individuals as "lean, withered, hollow-eyed, with flaggy beards and . . . fearful dreams." Galen observed that "many fear death and yet, in a contrary humor, make away with themselves." The great physicians were impressed with the manifold symptomatology. In The Anatomy of Melancholy Burton (2), reviewing the writings up to
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