Kenrad E. Nelson, MD; Mary Lou Clements, MD; Paolo Miotti, MD; Sylvia Cohn, MS; B. Frank Polk, MD
Nelson KE, Clements ML, Miotti P, Cohn S, Polk BF. The Influence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection on Antibody Responses to Influenza Vaccines. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:383-388. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-109-5-383
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1988;109(5):383-388.
Study Objective: To ascertain whether subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) generally develop protective hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses to inactivated influenza vaccines.
Design: Prospective study of 104 persons before and after immunization.
Setting: Outpatient clinic and hospital ward.
Patients: Persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (n = 25), AIDS-related complex (n = 14), and HIV-seropositive men with only lymphadenopathy or no symptoms (n = 27). Controls were HIV-seronegative homosexual men (n = 22) and HIV-seronegative heterosexuals (n = 16).
Interventions: Subjects were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing 15 μg of each of the following influenza virus hemagglutinins: A/Taiwan/1/86 (HINI), A/Mississippi/1/85(H3N2), A/Chile/1/83 (HINI), and B/Ann Arbor/1/86.
Measurements and Main Results: Fourfold or greater antibody responses occurred less frequently in subjects with HIV infections than in HIV-seronegative controls. Protective levels (1:64 or greater) of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies were attained by 94% to 100% of HIV-seronegative controls, 52% to 89% of HIV-seropositive asymptomatic subjects, and 13% to 50% of subjects with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. No increase in the prevalence or level of serum HIV p24 antigen or clinical deterioration was detected among HIV-infected persons after influenza immunization.
Conclusions: Because of the poor antibody responses to influenza vaccines among HIV-infected subjects, even in many with no or minimal symptoms, alternative strategies for preventing influenza, such as booster doses of influenza vaccine, prophylaxis with amantidine, or both should be considered.
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Infectious Disease, Vaccines/Immunization, Influenza, Prevention/Screening.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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