Harold I. Feldman, MD, MS; Judith L. Kinman, MA; Jesse A. Berlin, ScD; Sean Hennessy, PharmD, MS; Stephen E. Kimmel, MD, MS; John Farrar, MD; Jeffrey L. Carson, MD; Brian L. Strom, MD, MPH
Feldman HI, Kinman JL, Berlin JA, Hennessy S, Kimmel SE, Farrar J, et al. Parenteral Ketorolac: The Risk for Acute Renal Failure. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:193-199. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-126-3-199702010-00003
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(3):193-199.
Acute renal failure has been associated with parenteral ketorolac tromethamine, but the risk that is associated with this therapy has not been quantified.
To compare the risk for acute renal failure associated with ketorolac with that associated with opioids.
Retrospective cohort study.
35 hospitals in or near Philadelphia.
Patients receiving 10 219 courses of parenteral ketorolac and patients receiving 10 145 courses of parenteral opioids.
Acute renal failure was defined by 1) an increase in the serum creatinine concentration of 50% or more and 2) either an absolute increase of 44.2 µmol/L or more for concentrations that were less than 132.6 µmol/L at baseline or an absolute increase of 88.4 µmol/L or more for concentrations that were 132.6 µmol/L or more at baseline. In addition, a secondary definition required a diagnosis by a physician.
The overall incidence of acute renal failure was 1.1% after therapy with either ketorolac or opioids. Multivariate-adjusted rate ratios comparing ketorolac with opioids for acute renal failure were 1.09 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.42) overall, 1.00 (CI, 0.76 to 1.33) for less than 5 days of therapy, and 2.08 (CI, 1.08 to 4.00; P = 0.03) for more than 5 days of therapy. Similar results were obtained when the secondary definition of acute renal failure was used.
Overall, acute renal failure was uncommon in this hospitalized population. Compared with opioids, ketorolac administered for 5 days or less did not increase the rate of renal failure. However, among patients who were treated with analgesics for more than 5 days, ketorolac may be associated with an elevated rate of acute renal failure.
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Acute Kidney Injury, Nephrology.
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