Ming Wei, MD; Larry W. Gibbons, MD; Tedd L. Mitchell, MD; James B. Kampert, PhD; Chong D. Lee, EdD; Steven N. Blair, PED
Several studies show an inverse association between self-reported physical activity and type 2 diabetes. It is not known whether physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with the onset of objectively determined impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes.
To determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective marker of physical activity, is associated with risk for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes.
Population-based prospective study.
Preventive medicine clinic.
8633 nondiabetic men (of whom 7511 did not have impaired fasting glucose) who were examined at least twice.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (determined by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill), fasting plasma glucose level, and other clinical and personal characteristics and incidence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes.
During an average follow-up of 6 years, 149 patients developed type 2 diabetes and 593 patients developed impaired fasting glucose. After age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and parental diabetes were considered, men in the low-fitness group (the least fit 20% of the cohort) at baseline had a 1.9-fold risk (95% CI, 1.5- to 2.4-fold) for impaired fasting glucose and a 3.7-fold risk (CI, 2.4- to 5.8-fold) for diabetes compared with those in the high-fitness group (the most fit 40% of the cohort). The risk for impaired fasting glucose was elevated in older men and those with a higher body mass index. Age, body mass index, blood pressure, triglyceride level, and a history of parental diabetes were also directly related to risk for type 2 diabetes.
Low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with increased risk for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes. A sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the progression from normal fasting glucose to impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. Risk for type 2 diabetes was elevated in older persons and those with higher body mass index, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels and a parental history of diabetes.
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Wei M, Gibbons LW, Mitchell TL, Kampert JB, Lee CD, Blair SN. The Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Impaired Fasting Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:89–96. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-130-2-199901190-00002
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(2):89-96.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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