Tomoshige Hayashi, MD; Kei Tsumura, MD, DrPH; Chika Suematsu, MD; Kunio Okada, MD, DrPH; Satoru Fujii, MD, DrPH; Ginji Endo, MD, DrPH
Acknowledgment: The authors thank the participants in the Osaka Health Survey for their dedication.
Grant Support: By Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.
Requests for Reprints: Tomoshige Hayashi, MD, Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3, Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Hayashi, Suematsu, and Endo: Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3, Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.
Dr. Tsumura: Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, 1-4-3, Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.
Dr. Okada: Medical Center for Employees' Health, Osaka Gas Company, 3 South 2-37, Chiyozaki, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0023, Japan.
Dr. Fujii: Environment and Public Health Bureau, Osaka City, 1-3-20, Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka 530-0005, Japan.
Hayashi T., Tsumura K., Suematsu C., Okada K., Fujii S., Endo G.; Walking to Work and the Risk for Hypertension in Men: The Osaka Health Survey. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:21-26. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-131-1-199907060-00005
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(1):21-26.
There is good evidence that physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease (1-6), possibly in part by lowering blood pressure (7). Although mild or moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, is a recommended part of the treatment protocol for persons with hypertension (8, 9), it is not known whether mild physical activity, especially walking, reduces the risk for hypertension.
With few exceptions, epidemiologic studies of physical activity and hypertension have been cross-sectional rather than prospective. Physical activity was inversely related to blood pressure in cross-sectional and controlled studies (7), and in two prospective studies (10, 11), vigorous exercise was inversely related to the subsequent risk for hypertension. Physicians in Japan usually advise their patients to walk to work as often as they can, and indeed, for middle-aged working Japanese men, the journey to and from work seems to be the main source of exercise.
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Cardiology, Nephrology, Hypertension, Coronary Risk Factors.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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