J. Pekka Nuorti, MD; Jay C. Butler, MD; Lisa Gelling, MPH; Jacob L. Kool, MD, MS; Arthur L. Reingold, MD; Duc J. Vugia, MD, MPH
Note: This paper was presented in part at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America, San Francisco, California, 13-16 September 1997.
Grant Support: Pneumococcal surveillance was funded by the National Center for Infectious Diseases Emerging Infections Program and the National Vaccine Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the following persons for their assistance in the investigation: Ling Hsu, San Francisco Department of Public Health, AIDS Office, San Francisco, California; Gretchen Rothrock, California Emerging Infections Program, Berkeley, California; Richard Facklam, Robert Breiman, Margarette Kolczak, Ariane Kraus, David Keller, Brian Plikaytis, and Anne Schuchat, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Requests for Single Reprints: J. Pekka Nuorti, MD, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Current Author Addresses: Dr. Nuorti: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
Dr. Butler: Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4055 Tudor Centre Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-5902.
Ms. Gelling: California Emerging Infections Program, 703 Market Street, Suite 705, San Francisco, CA 94103.
Dr. Kool: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology (CIE), RIVM, Postbak 75, A van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 BA Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
Dr. Reingold: Division of Public Health Biology and Epidemiology, Earl Warren Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360.
Dr. Vugia: Division of Communicable Disease Control, State of California, Department of Health Services, 2151 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94704-1011.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: J.P. Nuorti, A. Reingold, D.J. Vugia.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: J.P. Nuorti, J.C. Butler, J.L. Kool, D.J. Vugia.
Drafting of the article: J.P. Nuorti, J.C. Butler.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: J.P. Nuorti, J.C. Butler, J.L. Kool, A. Reingold, D.J. Vugia.
Final approval of the article: J.P. Nuorti, J.C. Butler, L.B. Gelling, J.L. Kool, A. Reingold, D.J. Vugia.
Statistical expertise: J.P. Nuorti, J.C. Butler, J.L. Kool.
Obtaining of funding: A. Reingold, D.J. Vugia.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: J.C. Butler, L.B. Gelling, A. Reingold, D.J. Vugia.
Collection and assembly of data: J.P. Nuorti, L.B. Gelling, D.J. Vugia.
Nuorti J., Butler J., Gelling L., Kool J., Reingold A., Vugia D.; Epidemiologic Relation between HIV and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in San Francisco County, California. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:182-190. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-132-3-200002010-00003
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(3):182-190.
S treptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and bacteremia in HIV-infected persons (1-3). Persons infected with HIV currently account for at least 40% of all adult cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in many U.S. medical centers (4, 5). Pneumococcal disease can occur early in the course of HIV infection, before onset of other opportunistic infections specifically associated with AIDS (6-8), and recurrent infection is common (2, 8). Extremely high overall rates of invasive disease have been documented in persons with AIDS (6, 8, 9), but no detailed data are available on disease rates in different demographic groups.
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Infectious Disease, HIV, Streptococcal Infections, Prevention/Screening.
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