Deborah Grady, MD, MPH; Nanette K. Wenger, MD; David Herrington, MD, MHS; Steven Khan, MD; Curt Furberg, MD; Donald Hunninghake, MD; Eric Vittinghoff, PhD; Stephen Hulley, MD, MPH; Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study Research Group
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Josephine Fong for performing statistical analyses.
Grant Support: By Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories.
Requests for Single Reprints: Deborah Grady, MD, MPH, University of California, San Francisco, 74 New Montgomery Street, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94105.
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Current Author Addresses: Drs. Grady, Vittinghoff, and Hulley: University of California, San Francisco, 74 New Montgomery Street, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94105.
Dr. Wenger: Emory University School of Medicine, 69 Butler Street SE, Atlanta, GA 30303.
Drs. Herrington and Furberg: Wake Forest University School of Medicine, One Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1066.
Dr. Khan: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 444 South San Vicente Boulevard, Suite 903, Los Angeles, CA 90048-4174.
Dr. Hunninghake: Heart Disease Prevention Clinic, Box 192, 151 Variety Club Heart and Research Center, 401 East River Parkway, Minneapolis, MN 55455.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: D. Grady, N.K. Wenger, S. Hulley.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: D. Grady, N.K. Wenger, D. Herrington, S. Khan, C. Furberg, D. Hunninghake, E. Vittinghoff, S. Hulley.
Drafting of the article: D. Grady.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: D. Grady, N.K. Wenger, D. Herrington, S. Khan, C. Furberg, D. Hunninghake, S. Hulley.
Final approval of the article: D. Grady, N.K. Wenger, D. Herrington, S. Khan, C. Furberg, D. Hunninghake, E. Vittinghoff, S. Hulley.
Provision of study materials or patients: N.K. Wenger, D. Herrington, S. Khan, D. Hunninghake.
Statistical expertise: E. Vittinghoff, S. Hulley.
Obtaining of funding: D. Grady, C. Furberg, D. Hunninghake, S. Hulley.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: D. Grady, S. Hulley.
Collection and assembly of data: D. Grady, S. Khan.
Grady D, Wenger NK, Herrington D, Khan S, Furberg C, Hunninghake D, et al. Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Increases Risk for Venous Thromboembolic Disease: The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:689-696. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-132-9-200005020-00002
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(9):689-696.
Venous thromboembolism, including thrombosis of the deep veins of the legs and embolism to the pulmonary arteries, is a serious and potentially fatal event. Venous thromboembolism is uncommon in the general population, occurring in about 1 to 4 per 1000 adults annually (1, 2). However, the risk is increased in persons with previous venous thromboembolism (3), recent surgical procedures (4, 5), immobilization, fracture of a lower extremity (4, 6, 7), cancer (4, 6, 7), and inherited coagulation disorders (8, 9).
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